The ability of pathogens to multiply in the host is crucial for the spread of infections. The speed of bacterial division greatly depends on the environmental conditions. Under unfavorable conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, bacteria tend to pause after division and reproduce more slowly. But how do bacteria know, when it is time to enter the next round of cell division?
A team at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, led by Prof. Urs Jenal has now identified a central switch for reproduction in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus: the signaling molecule c-di-GMP. In their current study, published in the journal Nature Communications, they report that this molecule initiates a "clock-like" mechanism, which determines whether individual bacteria reproduce.
Cell - Division - Round - Division - Molecule
How long a cell pauses after division and how it then decides to engage in the next round of division is still poorly understood. The signaling molecule c-di-GMP plays a key role in this process. "The rise in the c-di-GMP level sets the individual cogwheels of the cell's clock into action, one after the other," explains Jenal. "These cogwheels are enzymes called kinases. They prepare the transition of the cell from the resting to the division phase."
Under favorable living conditions, newborn bacteria begin to produce the signaling molecule -- this starts the clock ticking. The initially low c-di-GMP level activates a first kinase. This activates the expression of...
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