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For eleven years from 2009 through 2019, the planes of NASA's Operation IceBridge flew above the Arctic, Antarctic and Alaska, gathering data on the height, depth, thickness, flow and change of sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets.Designed to collect data during the years between NASA's two Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellites, ICESat and ICESat-2, IceBridge made its final polar flight in November 2019, one year after ICESat-2's successful launch.
As the team and planes move on to their next assignments, the scientists and engineers reflected on a decade of IceBridge's most significant accomplishments.
NASA - Ice - Cloud - Land - Elevation
NASA's first Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) monitored ice, clouds, atmospheric particles and vegetation globally beginning in 2003. As ICESat neared the end of its life, NASA made plans to keep measuring ice elevation with aircraft until ICESat-2's launch. ICESat finished its service in August 2009, and IceBridge took over land and sea ice measurements for the next decade.
The number and models of IceBridge aircraft changed from year to year, and they carried more than a dozen instruments: from elevation-mapping lasers and ice-penetrating radars, to optical and infrared cameras, to gravimeters and magnetometers that reveal information about the bedrock under the ice. Beyond simply bridging the altimetry gap, the mission's comprehensive suite of instruments allowed it to document fast and slow changes to the ice sheets, understand the geophysical causes of those changes, track yearly fluctuations in sea ice thickness and improve computing and modeling tools for research.
IceBridge - NASA - Areas - Greenland - Ice
Before IceBridge, NASA was annually monitoring vulnerable areas of the Greenland Ice Sheet via the Arctic Ice Mapping Project (AIM). But IceBridge far surpassed previous campaigns in size and scope, with annual surveys of both poles, more instruments and a longer time frame that allowed it to track changes across and even within years.
One of IceBridge's first important contributions...
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