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The first study of a toad mimicking a venomous snake reveals that it likely imitates one of Africa's largest vipers in both appearance and behavior, according to results published in the Journal of Natural History.
The Congolese giant toad, a triple cheeseburger-sized prize for any predator, may use its ability to mimic the highly venomous Gaboon viper to escape being eaten. The viper has the longest snake fangs in the world and produces more venom than any other snake.
Study - Years - Fieldwork - Observation - Researchers
"Our study is based on ten years of fieldwork and on direct observation by researchers lucky enough to see the toad's behavior first-hand. We're convinced that this is an example of Batesian mimicry, where a harmless species avoids predators by pretending to be a dangerous or toxic one," says Dr. Eli Greenbaum from the University of Texas at El Paso. "To fully test our hypothesis, we'd have to demonstrate that predators are successfully duped, but this would be very difficult in the wild, where the toads are only encountered rarely. However, based on multiple sources of evidence provided in our study, we are confident that our mimicry hypothesis is well-supported."
The researchers made comparisons between the appearance of the toad, found in central African rainforests, and the viper, which is more widespread in central, eastern and southern Africa. Using live wild-caught and captive specimens, as well as preserved museum ones, they found that the color pattern and shape of the toad's body is similar to that of the viper's head. Most striking are two dark brown spots and a dark brown stripe that extends down the toad's back, the triangular shape of the body, a sharp demarcation between the tan back and dark brown flanks, and the species' extraordinarily smooth skin for a toad. Because the Gaboon viper is capable of causing deadly bites,...
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