Ard used a variety of detailed data sources to examine air pollution and the demographics of the people who lived in 1-kilometer-square areas throughout a six-state region from 1995 through 1998. These are the four years after President Bill Clinton's 1994 executive order that focused attention on the environmental and health effects of federal actions on minority and low-income populations. The act's goal was "achieving environmental protection for all communities."
The six-state area analyzed in the Ohio State study, home to many aging and shuttered industrial plants, includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. These states make up the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency region with the highest level of unequal distribution of air toxins between whites and African-Americans.
Years - Analysis - Ard - Air - Pollution
In the four years included in her analysis, Ard found persistent air pollution hot spots that did not improve.
"We're seeing that these pollution hot spots are the same, year after year, and every time they are in low-income communities -- often communities of color. This has implications for a wide array of health disparities -- from preterm births and infant mortality to developmental delays in childhood, to heart and lung disease later in life," Ard said.
Results - Mitigation - Gap - Executive - Order
"Our results do not support that there was a perceivable mitigation of this gap after the executive order. In fact, we found that for every 1 percent increase in low-income African Americans living in an area, the odds that an area would become a hot spot grew significantly. This was also true, but to a lesser extent, for increases in low-income white populations."
Previous research has shown that despite widespread reductions in air pollution, blacks are still experiencing twice the health risk from air pollution...
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