Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the brain and the spinal cord that affects over two million people worldwide. The potential symptoms of MS are wide ranging and can include problems with vision, movement and cognitive abilities. Previous research has shown that a brain region called the cortex shrinks over time in MS patients, known as cortical atrophy. The processes driving this cortical shrinkage have, until now, been unclear.
In a new international study from the University of Cambridge, University of Heidelberg and University of California, San Francisco, researchers used post-mortem human brain samples from MS patients to study a wide range of cell types implicated in the disease, and compared their findings to brain samples donated from people that did not have MS.
Technique - Nuclei - RNA - Sequencing - Make-up
"Using a new technique called single nuclei RNA sequencing, we were able to study the genetic make-up of individual brain cells to understand why some cells might be more susceptible to damage in MS than others," said Dr Lucas Schirmer, lead scientist on the project from the University of Heidelberg.
"Our results showed that a particular type of nerve cell called "projection neurons" were particularly vulnerable to damage in the brains of MS patients."
People - Projection - Neurons - Information - Areas
In healthy people, these projection neurons are involved in communicating information between different areas of the brain. It is therefore possible that the damage to these cells can affect cognitive abilities in MS patients. Moreover, the loss of this particular cell types helps explain why brains of MS patients shrink over time -- the more cells that are damaged and lost, the less space the brain takes up.
The researchers also showed that immune cells in the brains of MS patients were targeting projection neurons and causing cell stress and damage.
Immune - Cells
"We found that antibody-producing immune cells are related...
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