All cells regulate gene expression related to metabolic pathways, and adapt to environmental changes such as fluctuations in nutrition, oxygen supply, exercise, and temperature. Cells in the human body use two types of cellular metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. Mitochondrial respiration produces energy for the cell when oxygen is supplied (aerobic), and glycolysis is used when oxygen is scarce (anaerobic). The activity of metabolic genes changes significantly as the method of energy production shifts between these two mechanisms. Some of the most critical changes are due to histone acetylation and methylation (the addition/removal of acetyl and methyl groups) of lysine amino acids. The enzymes deacetylase SIRT1 and demethylase LSD1 are especially important in the regulation of metabolic genes because they remove the acetyl and methyl groups, respectively, of target proteins.
Two metabolic pathways, NAD+ -SIRT1 and FAD-LSD1, regulate the function of specific gene sets, and transmit nutrient signals. Recently, Kumamoto University researchers revealed that these two pathways are controlled by dietary vitamins and nutritional hormones, induce metabolic activity, and develop tissue-specific properties in fat and skeletal muscle cells. They found that FAD-LSD1 pathway represses mitochondrial metabolism and induces fat accumulation under obese condition.
DOHaD - People - Malnutrition - Development - Birth
DOHaD theorizes that people affected by malnutrition during early development may have a low birth weight and...
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"However, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on the earth?" Luke 18:8