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New research for the first time quantifies, through experiments and mathematical modelling, just how large and how dense a continuous meadow of seagrass must be to provide adequate damping of waves in a given geographic, climatic, and oceanographic setting.
In a pair of papers appearing in the May issues of two research journals, Coastal Engineering and the Journal of Fluids and Structures, MIT professor of civil and environmental engineering Heidi Nepf and doctoral student Jiarui Lei describe their findings and the significant environmental benefits seagrass offers. These include not only preventing beach erosion and protecting seawalls and other structures, but also improving water quality and sequestering carbon to help limit future climate change.
Services - Services - Habitat - Food - Marine
Those services, coupled with better-known services such as providing habitat for fish and food for other marine creatures, mean that submerged aquatic vegetation including seagrass provides an overall value of more than $4 trillion globally every year, as earlier studies have shown. Yet today, some important seagrass areas such as the Chesapeake Bay are down to about half of their historic seagrass coverage (having rebounded from a low of just 2 percent), thus limiting the availability of these valuable services.
Nepf and Lei recreated artificial versions of seagrass, assembled from materials of different stiffness to reproduce the long, flexible blades and much stiffer bases that are typical of seagrass plants such as Zostera marina, also known as common eelgrass. They set up a meadow-like collection of these artificial plants in a 79-foot-long (24-meter) wave tank in MIT's Parsons Laboratory, which can mimic conditions of natural waves and currents. They subjected the meadow to a variety of conditions, including still water, strong currents, and wave-like sloshing back and forth. Their results validated predictions made earlier using a computerized model of individual plants.
Researchers - Models
The researchers used the physical and numerical models to analyze...
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