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Now, a pair of research papers published the week of April 22 from the University of Washington -- one in the Journal of Neuroscience, the other in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences -- use functional MRI to identify two differences in the brains of blind individuals that might be responsible for their abilities to make better use of auditory information.
"There's this idea that blind people are good at auditory tasks, because they have to make their way in the world without visual information. We wanted to explore how this happens in the brain," said Ione Fine, a UW professor of psychology and the senior author on both studies.
Parts - Brain - Studies - Sensitivity - Brain
Instead of simply looking to see which parts of the brain were most active while listening, both studies examined the sensitivity of the brain to subtle differences in auditory frequency.
"We weren't measuring how rapidly neurons fire, but rather how accurately populations of neurons represent information about sound," said Kelly Chang, a graduate student in the UW Department of Psychology and lead author on the Journal of Neuroscience paper.
Study - Auditory - Cortex - Individuals - Subjects
That study found that in the auditory cortex, individuals who are blind showed narrower neural "tuning" than sighted subjects in discerning small differences in sound frequency.
"This is the first study to show that blindness results in plasticity in the auditory cortex. This is important because this is an area of the brain that receives very similar auditory information in blind and sighted individuals," Fine said. "But in blind individuals, more information needs to be extracted from sound -- and this region seems to develop enhanced capacities as a result.
Example - Development - Abilities - Brains - Environment
"This provides an elegant example of how the development of abilities within infant brains is influenced by the environment they grow up in."
The second study examined how the brains of people who are born blind...
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