The outer solar system continues to confirm the biblical timescale. When the New Horizons spacecraft flew past the Pluto system in July 2015, its findings challenged secular expectations. In the standard old-universe model, Pluto formed about 4.5 billion years ago. Yet, New Horizons found evidence of a geologically “youthful” surface for both Pluto and its largest moon Charon. A recent study examining the sparse cratering on these worlds provides even additional evidence of their biblical age of a few thousand years. To understand this, we need some information about comets.
Comets are evidence that the solar system is much less than a million years old. They are balls of various types of ice and dirt. Their main constituent is water-ice. But frozen carbon monoxide is also a significant component, with smaller amounts of ice of carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Comets generally have highly elliptical orbits, spending most of their time far away from the sun in the outer solar system. But their orbit briefly brings them into the inner solar system where their icy material is heated by the sun.
Light - Heat - Sun - Layers - Comet
The light and heat from the sun causes the outer layers of the comet’s surface to vaporize, forming a visible cloud of dust and gas called a coma which surrounds the comet’s icy nucleus. Solar wind and radiation pressure exert a force on the dust and gas, forming a tail that points away from the sun. So comets constantly lose mass that is carried away in their tail. Every time you see a comet, it is losing material. The visible tail can extend millions of miles into space. However, the source material is contained in the comet’s nucleus, which is typically only a few miles across.
Astronomers classify comets into two categories. Short-period comets have an orbital period of less than two...
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