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Around the world, biodiversity is changing dramatically and its protection has become one of the greatest challenges humankind is facing. At the same time, we still know very little about why some places are biologically diverse while others are poor, and where are the most biodiverse places on Earth. Also, the reasons why some areas are more species-rich than others are often unclear: what role do environmental factors like climate play, and how important are historical factors like past ice ages for the biodiversity we are observing today? Our knowledge is based on scattered local surveys and is full of gaps; especially in tropical regions, where biodiversity can be particularly high. Closing all gaps by comprehensively surveying the whole planet, is, however, simply impossible.
Satellite imagery can close some data gaps; for example, when collating information on forest cover, but these techniques have their limits. "We don't have to just count the trees, we also need to identify what species they are," explains Dr Petr Keil, lead author of the new study. "In the tropics, we find hundreds of different tree species in a single hectare. We can identify these only on site. Therefore, most areas haven't been surveyed for biological diversity -- and probably never will be." Keil and co-author Prof Jonathan Chase are scientists at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.
Patchy - Data - Keil - Chase - World
Despite the patchy data, Keil and Chase wanted to create a world map of tree species richness. In a first step, they compiled well over 1,000 lists of tree species. These came either from small forest plots which had been surveyed in previous studies, or from whole countries. For most countries in the world, it is known which tree species can be found there, but not where exactly, and also...
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