Somewhere ages and ages hence:
And that has made all the difference.
Options - Road - Context - Revelation - Frost
Before I mention the options, I recommend the road less traveled. I promise no less in the context of Revelation than Frost does in his poem: to take the one less traveled by will make all the difference.
The first option — the road most traveled — sees in the trumpets a message of retribution. Scholars committed to this view are too numerous to count, but I will give a few examples.
Terrors - Earth - Powers - Christians - Proceeds
The terrors about to intensify upon the earth are not caused by independent powers of which Christians need to be afraid nor which they might attempt to placate. All proceeds ultimately from the sovereign hand of the one God (Eugene Boring).
The narrative of the punishments unleashed with the blowing of each successive trumpet (8:1–9:21 and 11:15-18)…is an eschatological application of the ten plagues inflicted on Egypt by God (Exodus 7-12) (David Aune).
People - Earth - Trumpet - Plagues - Purpose
Although the people of the earth afflicted by the seven trumpet plagues reportedly do not repent (9:20-21), the purpose of the plagues is not to elicit repentance but to exact punishment (David Aune).
The exodus plagues are both a literary and a theological model for the trumpets. Therefore, the trumpet plagues are better viewed primarily as actual judgments on the majority of earth’s inhabitants, though secondarily they are warnings for only a remnant (Greg Beale).
Theology - Exodus - Plagues - Composition - Trumpets
But if the theology of the exodus plagues has been formative for the composition of the trumpets, then the trumpets must ultimately be understood as punishments that further harden the majority of people (Greg Beale).
The purpose of the first four trumpet judgments is primarily to disprove the earthly gods and to show that Yahweh alone is on the throne. By recapitulating the Egyptian plagues, God wants to make his omnipotence known to the world and to...
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