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The air quality on cruise ships is as polluted as the smog-ridden cities of Beijing and could endanger human health, a new study has claimed.
Researchers monitored pollution levels on the decks of four different cruise liners over a two-year period.
Air - Quality - Concentrations - Cities - Heart
And they found that the air quality was 'comparable to concentrations measured in polluted cities' and when inhaled it could 'damage the heart and lungs'.
The research was carried out on behalf of campaign group Stand.earth by Dr Ryan David Kennedy of John Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore.
Dr - Kennedy - Carnival - Cruise - Ships
Dr Kennedy boarded four Carnival cruise ships and took air quality readings on each of them.
The ships were Carnival Liberty sailing from Florida to the Bahamas; Carnival Freedom sailing from Texas to the Caribbean; Holland America MS Amsterdam travelling from Vancouver to Los Angeles; and Princess Cruises Emerald Princess en route from Los Angeles to Mexico.
Undercover - Dr - Kennedy - Levels - Particulate
Working undercover, Dr Kennedy measured the levels of particulate matter (PM) - a term used to describe the mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets in the air. It can be either human-made or naturally occurring.
He took readings on different parts of the ship, including the bow, stern and track, using a P-TRAK Ultrafine Particle Counter.
Report - Readings - Back - Ship - Outdoor
And the report claimed they showed the highest readings were often at the back of the ship, where outdoor pools are usually located.
Dr Kennedy wrote: 'The average PM readings in the stern areas of each ship were significantly higher than the average readings measured fore of the smokestacks (towards the bow).
Findings - Study - Demonstrate - Source - PM
'The findings of this study demonstrate that a source of PM – likely, in part from the ship's exhaust system – is contributing to poorer air quality in the stern areas of these cruise ships.
'Concentrations of PM on the decks of these ships are comparable to concentrations measured in polluted...
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