# Electricity Basics: Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance

Live Science | 1/16/2019 | Staff
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Electronic circuits are integral parts of nearly all the technological advances being made in our lives today. Television, radio, phones and computers immediately come to mind, but electronics are also used in automobiles, kitchen appliances, medical equipment and industrial controls. At the heart of these devices are active components, or components of the circuit that electronically control electron flow, like semiconductors. However, these devices could not function without much simpler, passive components that predate semiconductors by many decades. Unlike active components, passive components, such as resistors, capacitors and inductors, can't control the electron flow with electronic signals.

As its name implies, a resistor is an electronic component that resists the flow of electric current in a circuit.

#### Metals - Silver - Copper - Conductivity - Resistivity

In metals such as silver or copper, which have high electrical conductivity and therefore low resistivity, electrons are able to skip freely from one atom to the next, with little resistance.

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#### Resistance - Circuit - Component - Ratio - Voltage

The electrical resistance of a circuit component is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage to the electric current that flows through it, according to HyperPhysics, a physics resource website hosted by the department of physics and astronomy at Georgia State University. The standard unit for resistance is the ohm, which is named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm. It is defined as the resistance in a circuit with a current of 1 ampere at 1 volt. Resistance can be calculated using Ohm's law, which states that resistance equals voltage divided by current, or R = V/I (more commonly written as V = IR), where R is resistance, V is voltage and I is current.

Resistors are generally classified as either fixed or variable. Fixed-value resistors are simple passive components that always have the same resistance within their prescribed current and voltage...
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