The protein Matrin-3 determines the fate of neural stem cells in brain development

ScienceDaily | 11/1/2018 | Staff
blacky (Posted by) Level 3
Neural stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of nerve cells (pluripotency) and can autonomously replicate in an undifferentiated state. During the embryonic stage in mammals, neural stem cells differentiate into the major neural cells, like neurons and astrocytes, which constitute the brain. They are regulated by combinations of multiple signal transduction pathways, genes, and transcription factors. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine their fate. Understanding how neural stem cells maintain an undifferentiated state or how they determine which type of cells to differentiate into is important for neural development research.

The Kumamoto University research group attempted to find a molecule that controls the fate of neural stem cells. In particular, they wanted to find a transcription factor that regulates genes with extremely small expression. Transcription factors regulate signals, by turning them on or off, using phosphorylation -- a mechanism that changes the action of a protein through the addition of a phosphate molecule. However, since phosphorylation occurs inside an organism (in vivo), and only in trace amounts inside a cell nucleus, it is difficult to capture the phenomenon. Fortunately, the research group had previously developed their own technology to detect these trace amounts of proteins. Using this proprietary technology, the researchers discovered a novel nuclear phosphorylation protein called "Matrin-3," which they ascertained was responsible for determining fate of neural stem...
(Excerpt) Read more at: ScienceDaily
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