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Their findings were published on August 14th in Scientific Reports.
Upper-level observations such as radiosondes in the Arctic can help to forecast mid-latitude extreme events. Impacts of the Arctic observations can transfer via the tropospheric polar vortex, which is massive low-pressure air mass over the Arctic or Antarctic regions at about 10-km altitude. The tropospheric polar vortex sometimes extends toward mid-latitudes accompanied with meandering of mid-latitude westerly jets. This extension can occur even in summer: in August-September 2016, the meandering and extension were relatively active among the recent years. Thus, the impacts of the Arctic radiosonde observations could influence the mid-latitude extremes, the courses of three tropical cyclones approaching to Japan or Northern U.S. and Greenland, since the impacts transferred trough the extended tropospheric polar vortex.
Clearer - Understanding - Influences - Predict - Track
Having a clearer understanding of these influences can help us better predict, track and prepare for extreme weather events such as cyclones. Currently, meteorological observations are conducted by radiosonde, a weather instrument that records meteorological data, typically released into the atmosphere with a weather balloon. However, due to hostile conditions experienced in the Arctic and the limited reach of the low pressure system, the number and frequency of these observations are limited. Consequently, there are gaps in the data that result in weather forecasts being less accurate than what they could and should be, potentially putting peoples' lives at risk.
"Extreme weather events have been frequently observed in all seasons all over the world," said lead-author Kazutoshi Sato, an assistant professor at the Kitami Institute of Technology and previous member of the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) in Japan. "Hurricanes and typhoons are one of the most influential phenomena for human life. Precise weather forecast is critical to enable communities to adequately prepare for weather disasters," he added.
Study - Researchers - Forecast - Experiments
For the study, the researchers performed weather forecast experiments...
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