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"This study contradicts key dogmas about human evolution and our distinct place on the 'ladder of nature,'" says Rui Diogo, an Associate Professor in the Department of Anatomy at Howard University, Washington, USA. "Our detailed analysis shows that in fact, every muscle that has long-been accepted as 'uniquely human' and providing 'crucial singular functional adaptations' for our bipedalism, tool use and vocal and facial communications is actually present in the same or similar form in bonobos and other apes, such as common chimpanzees and gorillas."
Long-standing evolutionary theories are largely based on the bone structures of prehistoric specimens -- and, according to Diogo, also on the idea that humans are necessarily more special and complex than other animals. These theories suggest that certain muscles evolved in humans only, giving us our unique physical characteristics. However, verification of these theories has remained difficult due to scant descriptions of soft tissues in apes, which historically have mainly focused on only a few muscles in the head or limbs of a single specimen.
Diogo - Difficulty - Primate - Ape
Diogo explains, "There is an understandable difficulty in finding primate, and particularly ape, specimens to dissect as they are so rare both in the wild and museums."
To find enough data to complete this research, Diogo compiled all previous information on ape anatomy based on studies with colleague Bernard Wood. He also conducted anatomical research on several bonobos that died of natural causes, together with colleagues at the University of Antwerp under the Bonobo Morphology Initiative 2016 -- looking for the presence of...
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